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Powered by ATP, the pump moves sodium and potassium ions in opposite directions, each against its concentration gradient. In a single cycle of the pump, three sodium ions are extruded from and two potassium ions are imported into the cell. The sodium-potassium pump moves sodium ions out of and potassium ions into the cell. The second mechanism is the sodium-calcium exchanger. It involves an enzyme referred to as Na + /K +-ATPase.This process is responsible for maintaining the large excessof Na + outside the cell and the large excess of K + ions on the inside. At that point, two potassium ions from outside the cell bind to the protein pump. The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy. In order to maintain the cell membrane potential, cells keep a low concentration of sodium ions and high levels of potassium ions within the cell (intracellular).The sodium–potassium pump mechanism moves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus, in total, removing one positive charge carrier from the intracellular space (please see Mechanism for details). The Na+-K+ ATPase exists in two forms, depending on its orientation to the interior or exterior of the cell and its affinity for either sodium or potassium ions. The exact mechanism by which this exchanger works is unclear. Figure 3.1.7 The sodium-potassium pump is found in many cell (plasma) membranes. For each ATP that is broken down, 3 sodium ions move out and 2 potassium ions move in. It is known that calcium and sodium can move in either direction across the sarcolemma. The action of this pump results in a concentration and charge difference across the membrane. This pump is powered by ATP. The sodium-potassium pump is an active transport protein that moves sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane. The process consists of the following six steps: The sodium-potassium pump moves two K + into the cell while moving three Na + out of the cell. One of the most important pumps in animal cells is the sodium-potassium pump (Na +-K + ATPase), which maintains the electrochemical gradient (and the correct concentrations of Na + and K +) in living cells.The sodium-potassium pump moves K + into the cell while moving Na + out at the same time, at a ratio of three Na + for every two K + ions moved in. The sodium-potassium pump, an important pump in animal cells, expends energy to move potassium ions into the cell and a different number of sodium ions out of the cell (Figure 3.6.2). The first mechanism involves an ATP-dependent Ca ++ pump that actively removes calcium from the cell (see figure at right). In more detail: Sodium ions bind to the pump and a phosphate group from ATP attaches to the pump, causing it to change its shape. Move three sodium ions out of a cell and two potassium ions into a cell while consuming an atp for each cycle. The NaK pump's job is to move potassium ions into the cell while simultaneously moving sodium ions out of the cell. In doing so, it pumps the three sodium ions out of the cell. Explanation: By pumping three (3) Na+ to the outside and two (2) K+ to the inside of the cell, there is a net positive charge on the outside leaving the inside of the cell electronegative. This process is important for a variety of reasons. The sodium-potassium pump is found in the plasma membrane of almost every human cell and is common to all cellular life. The potassium ions are then transported into the cell, and the process repeats. Sodium can move in either direction across the membrane in a single cycle of the cell that calcium sodium. 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Updated: January 7, 2021 — 8:05 am

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