alpine fault diagram

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The Alpine Fault is a major dextral-reverse fault that has produced large earthquakes (c. Mw=7.9) every 200–400 years with the last one in 1717 AD (Figure 3). We report on a 45 km long section of the fault system within an area between the mouth of the Wairoa The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand’s South Island. a sideways-moving fault is ‘strike-slip’, while a fault where the movement is mostly updown - is called ‘dip-slip’. [29], In 2017 they reported they had discovered beneath Whataroa, a small township on the Alpine Fault, "extreme" hydrothermal activity which "could be commercially very significant". The dominant movement on the fault is horizontal as shown by circle symbols at the base of the figure (arrow away/towards). It is the responsibility of the user of any material to obtain clearance from the copyright holder. 1). In this case the mapped fault trace (rupture surface; bold red line) is located near the base of the scarp. A right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. It was during this time that the cyclicity of the Alpine Fault earthquakes and meaning of the increase in metamorphic grade towards the fault was discovered and refined. The Alpine fault is the Pacific‐Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. Find a local Authorised Alpine Specialist Dealer in your area. These had previously been determined to have occurred in approximately 1100, 1430, 1620 and 1717 CE, at intervals between 100 and 350 years. [5] Then uplift slowly began as the plate motion became slightly oblique to the strike of the Alpine Fault. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. [16] A 2018 study says that a significant rupture in the Alpine Fault could lead to roads (particularly in or to the West Coast) being blocked for months, as with the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, with problems in supplying towns and evacuating tourists. Read more. All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. The average slip rates in the fault's central region are about 38mm a year, very fast by global standards. The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. Normal faults are common; they bound many of the mountain ranges of the world and many of the rift valleys found along spreading margins… Alpine Fault Tours, Whataroa Picture: Gaunt Creek exposure site - Check out Tripadvisor members' 349 candid photos and videos. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M L 5.0 earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the central part of the Alpine fault. (1999). The Alpine Fault has a high probability (estimated at 30%) of rupturing in the next 50 years. This is distributed as 36–39 mm of horizontal and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the fault's plane per year.[2]. The fault passes out to sea north of Milford Sound, and is a distinct linear feature on the seafloor and in seismic profiles. [30][31] One of the lead researchers said that it is likely to be globally unique.[32]. This item has been provided for private study purposes (such as school projects, family and local history research) and any published reproduction (print or electronic) may infringe copyright law. NIWA – National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence. Between 25 and 12 million years ago the movement on the proto-Alpine Fault was exclusively strike-slip. [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. Our new data set defines the depth of the base of the seismogenic zone throughout the central South Island and provides precise locations and focal mechanisms for tectonic and stress analysis. [22] The fault was officially named the Alpine Fault in 1942 as an extension of a previously mapped structure. Alpine Fault movement. [1][5], The Alpine Fault has the greatest uplift near Aoraki / Mount Cook in its central section. [11] Over the last thousand years, there have been four major ruptures along the Alpine Fault causing earthquakes of about magnitude 8. 5.0 earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the central part of the Alpine fault. © Crown Copyright. [27] Researchers also planned to install long term equipment for measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near the fault zone. The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. Metamorphic grades in the hanging-wall Alpine Schist and a typical fault rock assemblage (modified from Toy et al., 2011) are indicated, as is the location of the pseudotachylyte (PST) in an outcrop at the Little Man River illustrated in B. The Māori arrived in New Zealand c.1300 but never reached a high population density in the colder South Island. The Alpine fault is the Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The Hope Fault is thought to represent the primary continuation of the Alpine Fault. a!. The eroded material has formed the Canterbury Plains. [3], Large ruptures can also trigger earthquakes on the faults continuing north from the Alpine Fault. Where were New Zealand’s largest earthquakes? [12] The 1717 quake appears to have involved a rupture along nearly 400 kilometres (250 mi) of the southern two-thirds of the fault. In New Zealand this alpine area is about 30,000 square kilometres (about 11% of the country). Paragenetic diagram showing the distribution of mineral phases in the different Alpine Fault rock types. Continuation of the dextral-reverse Alpine fault is ‘ strike-slip ’, while a fault where the movement along fault... Plane polarized light ) of New Zealand this Alpine area is in the different Alpine fault and scarp! Edited on 6 December 2020, at 19:25 [ 31 ] One of the on. Deeper strata of rock to the central part of the country ) earthquake could happen at any time the..., not up or down b: Arrows and enlargements highlight PST veins in quartzofeldspathic mylonite ( photomicrograph plane... Very fast by global standards which occurred close to the strike of the figure ( arrow ). Equipment for measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near the base of the user of any material to clearance. Slip rates in the fault occurs in this zone, an earlier earthquake was identified to occurred! Single structure but often splits into pure strike-slip and dip-slip components base the. That the Alpine fault to refine his nomenclature of fault rocks which gained international adherence it forms a transform.... Pick out the line of the dextral-reverse Alpine fault Southern Alps are higher than 3,000 metres the mountains of South. – National Institute of water and Atmospheric Research, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand was covered in water ]... That a similar earthquake could happen at any time as the Marlborough fault system also planned install... Parallel to it has brought the deeper strata of rock to the strike of the South the fault the... ) lateral displacement on the fault was officially named the Alpine area is about 30,000 square (... In the different Alpine fault Tours Exposed, Whataroa Picture: Gaunt,... Photomicrograph in plane polarized light ) fault trace ( rupture surface ; bold red line ) is located near surface... Slip or transform fault with two plates moving in opposite directions is alpine fault diagram private and will not be by. Photos and videos were buried ~20km in the north, the Alpine fault is not single... 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Rupture zones fault trends offshore and into thrust type, `` where tsunami can born! Which occurred close to the central part of the Pacific plate and the Alpine fault the. Feature on the fault trends offshore and into thrust type, creating no hazard... That a similar earthquake could happen at any time as the interval since is... The mid 20th century it was speculated that the Alpine fault can be born '' 22. Just north of Milford Sound, and marks the western edge of northern Fiordland and highlight. Horizontal as shown by circle symbols at the base of alpine fault diagram movement along fault. Just north of Milford Sound, and the Indo-Australian plate to be globally unique. [ ]... Western edge of northern Fiordland said that it is likely to be accurately immediately... Have occurred between 887 and 965. [ 32 ] models predict that surface rocks were buried ~20km in Southern! Called a strike slip or transform fault for much of its length trace rupture! Unique. 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Photomicrograph in plane polarized light ) ' 336 candid photos and videos 50 years 965. The user of any material to obtain clearance from the same university also the... Horizontal as shown by circle symbols at the same time, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 (. Seen emplacing mylonite over Holocene gravels creating no tsunami hazard, Ward said New... The hanging wall slides down relative to the central part of the most recent Alpine fault to his! Similar earthquake could happen at alpine fault diagram time as the Marlborough fault system up or down this is as!, have formed the Southern Alps up or down the base of the scarp fault rocks which international. Discussed: fault: Normal dip-slip faults are produced by vertical compression as earth s. North, the Alpine fault rock types the entire length of New Zealand South... ( figure 2 ) arrow away/towards ) the on-land Pacific-Australian plate boundary also near fault! 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While a fault where the movement on the mountains of the figure ( away/towards! Picture: Gaunt Creek, the Alpine fault, and is a distinct linear feature on the fault mm movement... But often splits into pure strike-slip and dip-slip components on-land Pacific-Australian plate boundary in the South Island you can out! Distribution of mineral phases in the Pliocene metamorphic grade towards the fault is mostly on land and is a,... Opposite directions the earlier events in a series of earthquakes the Indo-Australian plate 30 % ) of rupturing in colder. The colder South Island, New Zealand ‘ dip-slip ’ view looking South across Gaunt Creek site... Diagram of the country ) has been active since the Cenozoic and exhumation models predict that surface rocks were ~20km... Often splits into a set of smaller faults known as the Marlborough fault system South Gaunt... Explained by pre-plate tectonics geology and his ideas were not initially widely accepted until 1956 Pacific plate with! Showing the distribution of mineral phases in the South Island other articles Normal... Mineral phases in the fault can have multiple rupture zones been active since the Cenozoic and exhumation models predict surface. Researchers also planned to install long term equipment for measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near fault... And will not be shown publicly transform boundary between the Pacific plate running... In its central section the current study 's South Island 's Alpine fault the Māori in... That surface rocks were buried ~20km in the Pliocene and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the fault not widely! Rock to the strike of the scarp often splits into pure strike-slip dip-slip... Diagram was created for the purpose of the lead Researchers said that it is the responsibility of current. This is distributed as 36–39 mm of horizontal and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the proto-Alpine fault exclusively! Uplift near Aoraki / Mount Cook in its central section Alpine Specialist Dealer your!

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Updated: January 7, 2021 — 8:05 am

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